POSITION: Senior Anthropologist (Consultant) for Study Investigating the Role of the Family in the Reintegration Process of Demobilized Ex-Combatants



DEADLINE: 1 August 2012



I. Introduction

These terms of reference set out the objectives and scope of an in-depth qualitative study examining kinship dynamics during the process of reintegration of demobilized ex-combatants. More specifically, the study will investigate: (i) the impact of departure, absence and return of ex-combatants on their families, with a particular focus on spouses, and (ii) the role of the family in the social and economic reintegration of ex-combatants. The study will employ an anthropological approach, including family mapping and participatory techniques to investigate further these two key areas. The focus of the research will be on families of adult, demobilized ex-combatants (i.e. over the age of 18 at the time of demobilization). The qualitative study will be launched and conducted in parallel in Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi.

II. Background

The World Bank has supported Demobilization and Reintegration (D&R) programming in Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda since 2004. In all three countries, past and ongoing Demobilization and Reintegration (D&R) projects included numerous interventions aimed at facilitating the successful reintegration of ex-combatants back into their communities. These have varied and included programs targeting reconciliation, different forms of training aimed at improving economic livelihood opportunities, social reintegration activities, medical support for disabled, psycho-social support for those in need and specific programs focusing on women and children associated with armed groups. There has been limited specific support to the families of ex-combatants to prepare for the return and re-entry of the ex-combatants into the household and then their subsequent reintegration back into various societal layers. The assumption has always been that the family is an all-enduring body that welcomes ‘home’ the ex-combatant and has self determined mechanisms to deal with most of the complexities and challenges that they face. These assumptions are taken as given and none have been rigorously, empirically proven.

As such, there is limited understanding of the bridging function that the family plays in the reintegration of the ex-combatant from his/her current status to being a family member to becoming citizen. Little is known about how the family mobilizes to share resources (food, accommodation, household items, etc.) when the ex-combatant returns. Likewise, information on how the ex-combatant shares their reinsertion grants is limited to expenditure items, and nothing is known of what expectations are and how decision making processes to distribute this wealth are made. There is scant data on how economic productive resources (land, livestock, income generating activities, resources or opportunities – agricultural, trade, services or manufacturing/production) might be re-allocated. Indeed, there is no evidence to suggest whether the family pro-actively or otherwise enhances the reintegration process and it could be that individual family members might play positive or negative roles. Little is known of any negative effects to the family as a whole of an ex-combatant returning – social and political pressure that might range from mild avoidance by others to outright antagonism. In addition, during the absence of the combatant, other family members – and very often the spouse – take up roles and responsibilities that were attributed to the combatant before he/she left the household. Undertaking these new roles and responsibilities often can lead to empowerment especially of women. Little is known, however, of how the return of an ex-combatant influences or changes these newfound roles and responsibilities. What is known from ex-combatant self-reporting is that the family does suffer from stress and strain, some of which is not easily evident and some that remains latent until the euphoria of return has subsided.

Although a number of studies on the reintegration process have been undertaken in all three countries, there has never been any study specifically examining the underlying cultural, social, economic or behavioral drivers facilitating family acceptance or rejection of returning ex-combatants, nor is there a clear understanding of the economic or social impact on the family. The World Bank therefore seeks a senior anthropologist to lead a research teams in Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda to conduct qualitative research investigating the role and involvement of the family of ex-combatants during their social and economic reintegration back into their communities, as well as the resulting impact on the family. The consultant should employ an anthropological approach, during which field teams conduct multiple visits and thematic but unstructured interviews over time.

The results of these interviews and the overall qualitative study should then inform the development of a comprehensive quantitative study, including the interview schedule and draft questionnaires for a pilot survey.

Specifically, the study will seek to determine:

1.) The investigate the impact of both the absence and return of ex-combatants on family dynamics, structures and relationships with particular considerations for:

(a) Impact of departure and absence on the family: the social and economic impact of departure of combatants during conflict, how departure and absence influenced/drove changes in family roles and responsibilities, how departure and absence affected relationships within the community and with extended family networks; and

(b) Impact of return on the family: The social and economic impact of the return of the ex-combatant especially on spouses who might have taken on additional roles and responsibilities during the absence of the combatant from the family.

2.) The role that the family plays in the reintegration experience of the ex-combatant:

(c) Pre-reinsertion: kinship dynamics during the immediate pre-reintegration period, that is after the family has been notified that the ex-combatant is returning and the what different generic categories of family members (parents, spouse, children, siblings, etc.) do (or do not) in terms of preparing for the reintegration of the ex-combatant whilst waiting for their return;

(d) Reinsertion the various reintegration strategies that different family members employ (or not) during the ex-combatants reinsertion and immediate post-reinsertion period;

(e) Social Reintegration: the role that different family members play in facilitating (or hindering) the social reintegration of the ex-combatant;

(f) Economic Reintegration: the role that different family members play in facilitating (or hindering) the economic reintegration of the ex-combatant; and

(g) Family of Ex-combatants: whether the dynamics and roles played by different family members in facilitating (or hindering) differ if the ex-combatant is accompanied by a family.

The senior anthropologist and appointed teams will launch the qualitative phase during a multi-country workshop in September attended by technical specialists, peer advisors and relevant DDR Commission staff. In order to ensure as broad a representation of ex-combatant families as possible during this phase, the following criteria should be taken into account:

1) Ex-combatant type: gender, age (at which ex-combatant joined group), voluntary participation vs. abduction, community into which ex-combatant returned (rural vs. urban—in the case of Uganda, ex-combatants selected should have returned to their local communities rather than IDP camps), number of years since demobilization, demobilization alone or with new spouses and/or children, and possible consideration for ex-combatants who returned disabled. One area of consideration should be given to whether stratification should focus primarily on individual armed groups or by generic category type, i.e. did the ex-combatant live in the field (e.g. Rwanda), with their families (e.g. Burundi), were they abducted (e.g. Uganda), etc.

2) Associated armed group: Targeted families will be drawn from the associations with the following primary armed groups: CNDD-FDD, FNL and FNL dissidents in Burundi; FDLR and RDF in Rwanda, and; the LRA and ADF in Uganda. Targeting of additional groups may be considered.

3) Targeted family respondents: parents, siblings, neighbors, spouses pre-departure, spousal relationships developed in the field, spousal relationships developed post-departure, etc.

4) Family structure/composition: Family size, polygamous households, extended vs. nuclear families, families of child soldiers (under the age of 18 at the time of departure), households with only one or no parents, etc.

The research teams will target different generic categories of family members from between 20-30 families in each country during the anthropological phase. Additional considerations may be determined during the course of the qualitative phase. In order to ensure proper stratification and also to target family members most relevant for interviews, the lead consultant and teams should employ family mapping or participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques prior to the interviews. Mapping or PRA exercises may also include non-family members of the surrounding community who may provide insight into certain family experiences. Following the family mapping exercise, ex-combatants should be interviewed (before relatives) in order to ascertain basic facts and provide context to the subsequent family interviews. All survey tools and interview schedules should be adapted accordingly.

A multi-country workshop in September will launch the research, bringing together the respective research teams for each country, technical specialists, peer advisors and representatives from the DDR Commissions in each country. This workshop will inform the course of the research and contribute to the methodology design and development of relevant tools. Research teams will then undertake in-depth research in each country. Findings from the field research will be analyzed and summarized in a final report to be presented at another multi-country workshop event. Synthesized results will then inform the design of the quantitative study and draft questionnaires for the pilot survey.

III. Key Tasks

The consultant will:

• Prepare a literature review covering key areas related to DDR, reintegration and the role of the family, globally, with a specific focus on the three countries under review;
• Be responsible overall for the technical and methodological design of the first qualitative phase employing an in-depth anthropological approach to the analysis. This will include the drafting of mapping tools, questionnaires and interview schedules to be adapted to the individual context in each country;
• Participate in a multi-country launch workshop to work with technical specialists and peer advisors to discuss the qualitative study and proposed research tools (mapping techniques, questionnaires and interview schedules);
• Supervise, peer review and backstop local anthropologists/researchers;
• Undertake field missions to to all three countries to supervise and backstop the team of local anthropologists/researchers. Field missions may include trips to select localities representative of different social, economic and environmental conditions;
• Liaise closely with the DDR Commissions in Burundi and Rwanda, as well as with respective Bank staff, in those countries and Uganda;
• Prepare final reports (one for each country) synthesizing results from field missions conducted by local research teams and incorporating findings from the literature review;
• Draft a synthesis report and presentation of main findings;
• Present report and attendant findings during a multi-country level workshop;
• Assist with the development of the quantitative survey and draft questionnaires;
• Any other tasks related to this study as and when they emerge during the research and are requested/cleared by the Bank management team.

IV. Outputs and timing

Key outputs include:

• Literature review of subject matter;
• Inception report, including draft survey tools employed during field research (including surveys, questionnaires, participatory and mapping tools, etc);
• Final reports for each country;
• Synthesis report and presentation of the three studies;
• Presentation of reports and associated findings.

The consultancy will extend for up to 120 days between August 01, 2012 and September 30th, 2013. First draft of the report will be due by March 01st 2013.

Final payment of fees will be subject to final approval of outputs by task team leader.

The consultant will be supervised by Aki Stavrou (AFTCS), Senior Conflict and Development Specialist and Task Team Leader for this study. Additional supervision and coordination will be provided by Verena Phipps (AFTCS), Social Development Specialist.

V. Qualifications

• PhD in anthropology or any other social science related fields or equivalent years of experience including demonstrated field experience;
• Extensive knowledge of and experience working on issues related to DDR programming and ex-combatant reintegration;
• Psychosocial work with post-conflict and/or ex-combatant communities an advantage;
• Prior experience in post-conflict peacebuilding and dialogue at the family and community level considered an advantage;
• Demonstrated experience conducting in-depth qualitative analysis incorporating a variety of survey tools and techniques;
• Statistical analytical skills and knowledge of associate statistical programs (e.g. SPSS or STATA); • Excellent writing skills in English, fluency in French preferred as well;
• Experience working in Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda would be an asset.

How to apply: 

Qualified consultants are invited to submit Expressions of Interest, as based on the requirements detailed in the Terms of Reference. Candidates should submit their CVs and Expressions of Interest electronically through World Bank Group eConsultant2, referencing Selection Number 1079281 (https://wbgeconsult2.worldbank.org/wbgec/index.html). If unable to do so, candidates may also send Expressions of Interest to vphipps@worldbank.org. However they are strongly encouraged to apply directly through the World Bank econsult2 site.

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